Connecting The Transactional Analysis Community Worldwide
IJTARP Volume 8 Issue 2 July 2017
The development by the German Transactional Analysis Association of a scientifically-based evaluation system of Transactional Analysis training
© 2017 Norbert Nagel, Joachim König, Sebastian Ottmann and Annika Hahnle
The authors present the development and statistical analysis, conducted under the auspices of the German Transactional Analysis Association (DGTA), of an online evaluation system of transactional analysis training. The understanding of evaluation research is clarified, and the data-entry form and its grounding in the theory of transactional analysis are presented. Emphasis is placed on the development of the competence concept, the definition of competence categories, and the representation of the foundations of a transactional-analytic educational theory. The scientific examination of the validity and reliability of the scales, the research process with pre-test and re-test, and the evaluation of the data in the system of online evaluation are extensively documented. In conclusion, it is claimed that this online-based DGTA evaluation is one of the few result-oriented teaching evaluation instruments in the German-speaking countries which meets scientific control criteria and is published.
A therapist’s review of process: Rupture & Repair cycles in relational Transactional Analysis psychotherapy for a client with a dismissive attachment style: ‘Martha’
Silvia Baba Neal
This article is a therapist review of the process that occurred during a systematic case study of psychotherapy with ‘Martha’, a female client who presented with depression, anxiety, alexithymia and dismissive/avoidant attachment style. Assessment, diagnosis of the client and treatment direction is described, followed by a detailed account of the therapeutic process through 12 sessions and 2 post-therapy interviews. Analysis team results are summarised, indicating support for the therapist’s identification of issues during the process of the therapy. Particular attention is paid by the analysis team two points of rupture and repair, with pragmatic evaluation confirming that the relational struggles between therapist and client seemed pivotal in generating positive change.
The ‘taming’ of Julie and her avoidant attachment style
In this case study, I present the application of the model developed by Richard Erskine of ‘Self in Relationship’ to a client who I will call Julie. I describe the open and closed domains of contact that I observed at the beginning of the work. Then I explain how I bring this client to a state of awakening of the anaesthetised domains through an implied accompaniment and full contact, whilst respecting her avoidant attachment style.
Shame, the scourge of supervision
My motivation in writing this article is born from my personal experience with shame. It inhibited my thinking, my spontaneity, my creativity, and therefore limited my personal and professional development. Freeing myself allowed me to recover liberty, energy and legitimacy. I gained in professional competence and assertiveness within my practice as supervisor.
My purpose in writing this article is that we, as supervisors, reflect together on how we look at the process of shame in our supervision sessions.
IJTARP Volume 8 Issue 2 July 2017
Mäder, Maya (2017): Self experience in Psychotherapy: The significance for getting competence in training of transactional psychotherapy
Book reviewed by Günther Mohr
IJTAR Volume 8 Issue 1 January 2017
TA Treatment of Depression: A Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design Study – ‘Anna’
Enrico Benelli, Emanuela Moretti, Giorgio Cristiano Cavallero, Giovanni Greco, Vincenzo Calvo, Stefania Mannarini, Arianna Palmieri & Mark Widdowson
This study is the first of a series of seven, and belongs to the second Italian systematic replication of findings from two previous series (Widdowson 2012a, 2012b, 2012c, 2013; Benelli, 2016a, 2016b, 2016c) that investigated the effectiveness of a manualised transactional analysis treatment for depression through Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design (HSCED). The therapist was a white Italian woman with 8 years of clinical experience and the client, Anna, was a 33-year old white Italian woman who attended 16 sessions of transactional analysis psychotherapy. Anna satisfied DSM-5 criteria for mild persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia) with anxious distress. The conclusion of the judges was that this was a good-outcome case: the dysthymic symptoms improved over the course of the therapy and were maintained in the ‘healthy’ range at the 6-month follow-up, the client reported a positive experience of the therapy and described important changes in intrapsychic and interpersonal patterns. In this case study, transactional analysis treatment for depression has proven its efficacy in treating persistent depressive disorder.
TA Treatment of Depression: A Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design Study – ‘Caterina’
Enrico Benelli, Sara Filanti, Roberta Musso, Vincenzo Calvo, Stefania Mannarini, Arianna Palmieri & Mark Widdowson
This study is the second of a series of seven, and belongs to the second Italian systematic replication of findings from two previous series (Widdowson 2012a, 2012b, 2012c, 2013; Benelli, 2016a, 2016b, 2016c) that investigated the effectiveness of a manualised transactional analysis treatment for depression through Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design. The therapist was a white Italian woman with 10 years of clinical experience and the client, Caterina, was a 28-year old white Italian woman who attended 16 sessions of transactional analysis psychotherapy. Caterina satisfied DSM-5 criteria for major depressive disorder with generalized anxiety disorder. The conclusion of the judges was that this was an outstanding good-outcome case: the depressive symptoms showed an early clinical and reliable improvement, maintained till the 6 months follow-up, accompanied by reductions in anxiety symptoms, global distress and severity of personal problems. Adherence to the manualised treatment for depression appears good to excellent. In this case study, transactional analysis treatment for depression has proven its efficacy in treating major depressive disorder in comorbidity with anxiety disorder.
TA Treatment of Depression: A Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design Study – ‘Deborah’
Enrico Benelli, Maddalena Bergamaschi, Cristina Capoferri, Stefano Morena, Vincenzo Calvo, Stefania Mannarini, Arianna Palmieri, Mariavittoria Zanchetta & Mark Widdowson
This study is the third of a series of seven, and belongs to the second Italian systematic replication of findings from two previous series (Widdowson 2012a, 2012b, 2012c, 2013; Benelli, 2016a, 2016b, 2016c) that investigated the effectiveness of a manualised transactional analysis treatment for depression through Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design (HSCED). Major Depression and Subthreshold Depression are often in comorbidity with Anxiety disorders in childhood and adolescence and represent a risk factor for ongoing mental health problems in adulthood. The therapist was a white Italian woman with 15 years of clinical experience and the client, Deborah, was a 15-year old white Italian female adolescent who attended sixteen sessions of transactional analysis psychotherapy. The conclusion of the judges was that this was a good-outcome case: the depressive and anxious symptomatology clinically and reliably improved over the course of the therapy and these improvements were maintained throughout the duration of the follow-up intervals. Furthermore, the client reported significant change in her post-treatment interview and these changes were directly attributed to the therapy. In this case study, the transactional analysis manualised treatment for depression in adulthood has demonstrated its effectiveness also in treating depressive and anxiety symptoms in adolescence
IJTAR Volume 7 Issue 2 2016
Impact of the Application of Redecision Methods in Executive Coaching Workshops on Psychological Wellbeing: A Quantitative Evaluation of Effectiveness.
Mark Widdowson, Peter Theuns, Mil Rosseau & Rik Rosseau
Previous research has found that participants in redecision marathons experience increased personal growth and improvements in psychological well-being (McNeel, 1982; Noriega-Gayol, 1997; Widdowson & Rosseau, 2014). In this article, the authors conducted a quantitative analysis based on the use of the Ryff Scales of Psychological Wellbeing to determine whether participants (n=49) at an executive coaching redecision marathon would experience an increase in psychological well-being. The findings show statistically significant improvements in psychological well-being overall, and specifically within the sub-scales of autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth and self-acceptance, suggesting that redecision-based workshops are effective for improving subjective psychological well-being.
IJTAR Volume 7 Issue 2 2016
Combinations of Injunctions and Personality Types Determining Forms of Self-Destructive Behaviour in Alcohol-Dependent Clients: Findings of a Russian Observational Study
Dmitri I. Shustov, Olga D. Tuchina, Sergei A. Novikov & Ilya A. Fedotov
This observational study, conducted 2009-2012 with 190 male out-patient clients diagnosed with alcohol dependence and receiving psychotherapeutic treatment in Ryazan, Russia, investigated whether the patterns of self-destructive behaviours exhibited by the subjects were linked to their Personality Types and which combinations of injunctions were reflected in their main personality traits.
Self-destructive behaviour was measured according to the 7 Alcoholic Self-Destructiveness Dimensions (ASD) (Shustov 2005); data on alcohol abuse and preferred ASD were gathered through semi-structured interview; personality patterns and psychosocial functioning were assessed by means of clinical observation, semi-structured interview, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire: Version 4+ (Hyler, 1994) (Russian version) and ICD-10 criteria except for Narcissistic Disorder diagnosed according to DSM-IV; 12 injunctions were assessed with The Drego Injunction Scale (Drego, 1994) (Russian version).
When correlations were analysed, it was found that injunctions had a significant impact on the hamartic alcoholic script of the out-patient alcohol-dependent clients on the following continuum: Don’t Be, Don’t Think, Don’t Be a Child, Don’t Trust, Don’t Feel, Don’t Grow Up; client personality types had direct relationship with specific injunction patterns. Personality Types mediated the Alcoholic Self-Destructiveness Dimensions: the Classical Suicidal Dimension being associated with Borderline personality traits; Antisocial with the Antisocial personality; and Professional with the Narcissistic Personality.
An Investigation using a Case Study Approach into the Impact on a Counselling Team in the UK of an Organisational Restructuring within a Family Support Service
Following an organisational restructuring of a hospice in the UK, the author has used a case study approach to investigate the impact of this on a team of volunteer counsellors of which she was a member. A small number of the volunteer counsellors completed a questionnaire and some managers and other professionals were interviewed, and summaries of responses through each method are presented. The results are reviewed in terms of several transactional analysis concepts, and the author concludes by hypothesising that the impact of the restructuring on the counsellors appeared to parallel the sense of vulnerability felt by their clients.
The Many Faces of Transactional Analysis: A Survey Study of the Practice and Identity of Transactional Analysis Therapists in the UK
An online survey method was used with a sample of 99 therapists who had completed at least 4 years of transactional analysis psychotherapy training to investigate factors including their views on the most and least practised TA psychotherapy approaches based on the ‘schools’ of Classical, Redecision, Cathexis, Integrative, Psychodynamic and Relational. Demographic information on gender, age, therapeutic activity and professional associations was also collected, and the survey explored subjects’ willingness to diversify their knowledge of therapies other than TA, how much they integrated across therapeutic modalities, and their commitment to a TA Identity.
Statistical analysis was conducted on the TA Identity and Integrative Identity scales within the survey, which were shown to have good reliability and internal consistency. Statistical analysis of results indicated that participants displayed significantly higher levels of Integrative Identity than TA Identity, although it was not clear whether that related to the TA Integrative approach or to the general integration of different approaches. Attainment of the international TA qualification as Certified Transactional Analyst (Psychotherapy) was shown to be related to commitment to TA and commitment in the TA community.
IJTAR Volume 7 Issue 1 2016
TA Treatment of Depression: A Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design Study – ‘Sara’
© 2016 Enrico Benelli, Barbara Revello, Cristina Piccirillo, Marco Mazzetti, Vincenzo Calvo, Arianna Palmieri, Marco Sambin & Mark Widdowson
This study is the first of a series of three, and represents an Italian systematic replication of previous UK findings (Widdowson 2012a, 2012b, 2012c, 2013) that investigated the effectiveness of a recently manualised transactional analysis treatment for depression with British clients, using Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design (HSCED). The various stages of HSCED as a systematic case study research method are described, as a quasi-judicial method to sift case evidence in which researchers construct opposing arguments around quantitative and qualitative multiple source evidences and judges evaluate these for and against propositions to conclude whether the client changed substantially over the course of therapy and that the outcome was attributable to the therapy. The therapist in this case was a white Italian woman with 10 years clinical experience and the client, Sara, was a 62-year old white Italian woman with moderate depression and three recent bereavements, who attended sixteen sessions of transactional analysis therapy. The diagnosis is based on the new DSM-5 criteria that allow differentiation between Depression and Bereavement. The conclusion of the judges was that this was a good-outcome case: the client improved early over the course of the therapy, reported positive experience of therapy and maintained the improvement at the end of the follow-up.
TA Treatment of Depression: A Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design Study – ‘Penelope’
© 2016 Enrico Benelli, Francesco Scottà, Serena Barreca, Arianna Palmieri, Vincenzo Calvo, Guido de Rénoche, Stefano Colussi, Marco Sambin & Mark Widdowson
This study is the second of a series of three, and represents an Italian replication of a previous UK -based case series (Widdowson 2012a, 2012b, 2012c, 2013) that investigated the effectiveness of a recently manualised transactional analysis treatment for depression with British clients, using Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design (HSCED). The various stages of HSCED as a systematic case study research method are described, as a quasi-judicial method to sift case evidence in which researchers construct opposing arguments around multiple sources of quantitative and qualitative evidence and judges evaluate these to conclude whether the client changed substantially over the course of therapy, and whether the outcome was attributable to the therapy. The therapist in this case was a white Italian man in the third year of training to become a psychotherapist, and the client, Penelope, was a 45-year old white Italian woman with mild depression and anxiety. The conclusion of the judges was that this was a mixed-outcome case: the client improved some aspects of her problems, without obtaining a complete and stable remission. Interestingly, this case presents a minimal correlation between empirical and proxy-rated indexes of depression and anxiety and answers to self reported questionnaires, raising the question of validity of self report measures with specific typology of client.
TA Treatment of Depression: A Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design Study – ‘Luisa’
© 2016 Enrico Benelli, Desiree Boschetti, Cristina Piccirillo, Laura Quagliotti, Vincenzo Calvo, Arianna Palmieri, Marco Sambin & Mark Widdowson
This study is the third of a series of three, and represents an Italian systematic replication of previous UK findings (Widdowson 2012a, 2012b, 2012c, 2013) that investigated the effectiveness of a recently manualised transactional analysis treatment for depression with British clients, using Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design (HSCED). The various stages of HSCED as a systematic case study research method are described, as a quasi-judicial method to sift case evidence in which researchers construct opposing arguments around quantitative and qualitative multiple source evidences and judges evaluate these for and against propositions to conclude whether the client changed substantially over the course of therapy and that the outcome was attributable to the therapy. The therapist in this case was a white Italian woman with 10 years clinical experience and the client, Luisa, was a 65-year old white Italian woman who attended sixteen sessions of TA therapy. Luisa satisfied DSM-5 criteria for severe adjustment disorder, with moderate depression and mixed deflected humour and anxiety, for which she had been taking medications and homeopathic treatments for over a year. The conclusion of the judges was that this was a good-outcome case: the client improved over the course of the therapy, reported a positive experience of therapy and maintained this improvement at the end of the follow-up.
IJTAR Volume 6 Issue 2 2015
Research into professional outcomes for psychotherapists trained at a centre for psychotherapy and transactional analysis in Italy
© 2015 Ugo De Ambrogio and Carla Dessi
The authors developed a questionnaire and analysed professional outcomes for 98 former students who completed trainings in psychotherapy and transactional analysis, recognised by the Italian Ministry of University & Research, during the past 15 years at the Centre of Psychology and Transactional Analysis in Milan. Statistical results were discussed with others and factors reviewed included how students managed in the world of work, and the positive results and critical elements of applying transactional analysis in psychotherapy. Professional life facts emerge in terms of a recognisable identity, ethical attention and satisfaction with the application of tools learned. Flexibility in coping with stimuli and issues met in professional practice, and the desire to have an exchange with colleagues and between different theoretical models, are also identified.
Two empirical research projects into the impact of teaching the concept of drivers to preschool children in Italy
© 2015 Cesare Fregola
Fourth-year student teachers on a degree course at Roma Tre University were supervised as they conducted empirical research to introduce transactional analysis to primary schoolchildren, with the aim of developing their own self-efficacy and autonomy whilst demonstrating that the teaching of drivers (Kahler 1975) to children led to progressive development for those children of the metacognitive capabilities and self-awareness needed to make their own decisions about behavioural choices. The limitations of small sample groups are acknowledged as is the fact that the supervision came from authors whose previous work had provided the basis for the questionnaires designed and used by the students.
An in-depth exploration of the experience and sense-making of transactional analyst psychotherapists working with clients who present with Internet addiction
© 2015 Matthew Shorrock
Four internationally-accredited transactional analysis psychotherapists completed semi—structured one-to-one interviews that explored their experiences and sense-making of Internet addiction (IA). Interpretive phenomenological analysis yielded four higher-order concepts: the complexity of IA; aetiological and predisposing factors; functions and features of IA; and treatment factors. Practical and theoretical implications for future research, clinical supervision, treatment, psycho-educational and political programmes are presented. Of the key emergent findings the Internet was understood by participants as a conduit or medium for addiction given a high prevalence of an underlying ‘disorder’. It was also found that participants believed in the existence of childhood aetiological roots underpinning comorbidity with IA; that attachment difficulties in childhood often predispose individuals to develop issues around loneliness, low self-esteem, control, loss, instability and cognitive dissonance later in life; and that a relationship exists between depression, low self-esteem and escapism as contributing factors. It is concluded that professionals would benefit from specific trainings concerning childhood attachment difficulties, whilst integrating a psychodynamic approach, or being aware of transference processes, could enhance treatment effectiveness and help safeguard both clients and therapists from counter-therapeutic interventions.
Editor’s Note: This paper presents a synopsis of a thesis submitted as part of a Professional Doctorate in Counselling Psychology; after publication of this paper, the full thesis, in English, has been made available at the supplementary website associated with this journal: www.TAresearch.org
IJTAR Volume 6 Issue 1 2015
An action research project aimed at raising social consciousness amongst women attending transactional analysis group psychotherapy in Brazil
© 2015 Jane Maria Pancinha Costa
Based on awareness of material by Gramsci (1978, 1982) on hegemony, Freire (1979a, 1979b) on cooperative contact, and Steiner (1975) on radical psychiatry, action research methodology was used by the researcher, who was also a psychotherapist, with 12 women attending two ongoing weekly psychotherapy groups in Brazil in order to raise their social consciousness of culturally-based oppression of women, particularly relating to work; to apply life script analysis as a therapeutic intervention within the groups; and to facilitate recognition by the women of the benefits of cooperative contact when seeking to liberate themselves from oppression. Individual structured interviews were conducted and the data from these was discussed within the groups, leading to the development of a model containing 6 levels of consciousness of oppression. Examples of oppression identified by the women are provided, with only 17% relating directly to sexual discrimination at work. Although the research was conducted many years ago (1987-1989), it is shown that problems still exist and the research methodology could usefully be applied elsewhere.
Integration of Psychodrama and Transactional Analysis Methods in psychoeducational work with school-age children in Russia
© 2015 Marina Solomonovna Sokovnina and Viktor Nikolayevich Aleshin https://doi.org/10.29044/V6I1P15
Beginning with a comparison of the concepts and methods of psychodrama and transactional analysis, the authors identify similarities and present their experiences of combining these approaches in order to conduct workshops for 5th grade (11-12 years) students within the Russian educational system. They provide their rationale for this work, details of the content of the training and an example of the work of the students in the form of an agreement on cooperation between students and teachers. They provide an analysis of the reported emotions during lessons for 78 students compared to 38 within control groups, showing increased positive emotions and decreased negative emotions for those in the transactional analysis/psychodrama lessons. They conclude that the role-play method used was more effective than traditional educational methods within Russia for the development of autonomy, motivation and involvement of students.
An investigation into the factors that influence the perceived experiences and outcomes for students training in Transactional Analysis Psychotherapy in the UK and USA
© 2015 Cathy McQuaid
Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) (Smith, 1995) was applied to data from 21 out of 50 participants who had shared their training experiences during semi-structured interviews. Subjects were chosen from trainees and trainers in the USA and UK, to include ‘generations’ from those trained by transactional analysis originator Dr Eric Berne through to recently qualified transactional analysis psychotherapists, and including some who had ceased training before qualifying.
Results suggest that TA psychotherapy training is experienced by some as a transformational, life enhancing and reparative experience that culminates in a satisfying and rewarding career, whilst for others it is perceived as an abusive, punitive and punishing experience, bringing disillusionment, disappointment and dissatisfaction. The main contributing factors were the students’ personal belief systems, motivations for undertaking the training, and relationships with the trainer, peers and the profession as a whole.
Analysis of the themes suggested that subsequent anxieties raised by participants concerned lack of information, inconsistencies in training offered by different establishments, reasons for trainees entering training and trainers’ reasons for accepting them, and the significant time and resource requirements of the training. The paper includes recommendations aimed at making the training experience one that upholds the basic philosophical principles and values of TA, and promotes, develops and enhances TA psychotherapy training.
A pilot study to investigate and analyse script components of hospitalised individuals in Ukraine diagnosed with schizophrenia paranoid sub-type
© 2015 Ganna Golovan
Based on World Health Organisation (2014a) identification a lack of psychosocial interventions for the c. 24 million people worldwide suffering from schizophrenia, and a corresponding paucity of relevant transactional analysis literature, the author went on to conduct a pilot study of 27 participants in Ukraine, who were hospitalised and diagnosed by psychiatrists as schizophrenia paranoid sub-type. Four questionnaires were used in Russian: Internal Ego States Questionnaire (Hay, 1996), Driver Questionnaire (Cox, 2001), Critical Points of Development Questionnaire (Gusakovski, 2000 based on Bradshaw, 1991) and Brief Script Questionnaire (Stewart, 1999), the latter accompanied by a clinical interview during which diagnoses of other TA elements were made. Limitations in terms of un-validated questionnaires and statistical validity are noted but the study is presented, and copies of the questionnaires in English are published with the permission of the authors, in order to encourage further research into this hitherto neglected area.
Reducing teacher stress and burnout in high-risk secondary schools in South Africa using transactional analysis
© 2015 Sharon Mary Johnson
One of a number of articles arising from PhD research, this paper focuses on the results of applying transactional analysis as one of three approaches to reducing stress and burnout for teachers in high-risk secondary schools in the gangland areas of the Cape Flats, Western Cape, South Africa. The other approaches were Trauma Release Exercises (TRE) and Transpersonal Psychology (TP), and related articles on these and on the quantitative statistical analysis elements of this research are being disseminated elsewhere.
A total of 43 teachers in three different schools took part in one intervention held weekly over 10 weeks for one and a half hours (15 hours in total) at their school as part of staff development, with a control group of 20 teachers at a fourth school. Qualitative TA intervention questionnaire coding analysis and focus group post-intervention thematic analysis of the mixed-methods study are presented. Coding analysis focused on the intra- and inter-individual tools that impacted teachers, and it was found that TA generated self-awareness, self-help tools and a strong group connection. Thematic analysis gave insights into the physical, emotional and cognitive responses to stress and burnout interventions on the individual, interpersonal and organisational levels and revealed new perspectives on classroom competency, with teachers taking more responsibility for discipline in the classroom.
The study gave insights into the well-being and coping of educators who survive in these challenging contexts, and it is proposed that TRE, TP and TA approaches can be incorporated, and possibly combined, into integrative and eclectic ways of dealing with complex psychological challenges of stress and burnout reduction in traumatic environments.
IJTAR Volume 5 Number 2
Systemic Transactional Analysis Coaching: A study of effective conditions, consequences and effects on organisational culture
© 2014 Günther Mohr
The paper describes content and process of an ongoing in-house ‘individual coached within a group’ coaching programme run over many years in Germany, utilising various concepts including classical, systemic and systemic organisational transactional analysis and three sequential research studies covering the perceived usefulness of the coaching programme to individuals and their organisation, the correlations between attendance at the programme and professional advancement within the organisation, and the factors identified by participants as contributing to the effectiveness of the programme.
The initial survey-based study identified the primary factor as the extent to which participants had been able to deal with their personally-identified most important individual issue or problem. The second study applied QCA (Qualitative Comparative Analysis) (Ragin 1987, 2000, 2008) and showed a correlation between the autonomous variables of participation in the group and the interdependent variable of ‘additional empowerment’ by the company. The third study used frequency and valence analysis of responses to a questionnaire completed by 38 managers to identify the key elements that they believed contributed to the effectiveness of the coaching programme.
The author concludes that such programmes are effective but complex so require the coach to have psychological, pedagogical, leadership and manage-ment expertise and that this be applied within an organisational learning culture.
An investigation into the support needs of male partners of female alcoholics in Switzerland©
© 2014 Bea Schild
This exploratory study presents analysis of narrative interviews with three subjects conducted in Switzerland in 2009 to explore the support needs of male partners of female alcoholics. Different concepts on coping styles are introduced and interpreted in the light of several transactional analysis and other concepts. The content of the interviews was categorised according to structuring and typifying analysis. The results indicate that the main needs for support relate to issues of partnership and parenthood, to the image of addiction in society, and to financial and administrative issues, and hence are different to stressors identified by other researchers for female partners of male alcoholics and from support needs of close-one’s of the mentally ill.
Challenges to Developing Routine Outcomes Evaluation in Different Practice Settings and Cultures: A Naturalistic Enquiry in Spain and the UK
© 2014 Biljana van Rijn, Ciara Wild, Adina Dumitru
A naturalistic sessional evaluation of routine outcomes of psychotherapy from a range of theoretical orientations including transactional analysis, using standardised measures for depression, anxiety, general distress and working alliance, was conducted across completed therapy interventions by 113 therapists with 263 clients within an academic institution in the UK and across stages of therapy by 10 therapists with 26 clients in three independent clinics in Spain. Outcomes in both countries demonstrated clinical gains but it was found that such evaluation methodology was more easily applied within a training institute than in private practice; it also appeared to better fit the UK professional climate of evaluation. Suggestions are made concerning the introduction of such research in future.
Quantitative and Qualitative Outcomes of Transactional Analysis Psychotherapy with Male Armed Forces Veterans in the UK presenting with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
© 2014 David Harford and Mark Widdowson
This paper presents findings from a two-year research project conducted within a live-in residential charity setting in the UK, examining clinical outcomes of TA psychotherapy among 15 male armed forces veterans presenting with severe PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) and other comorbid disorders. Outcomes were measured for short-term (24 sessions) and long-term (52 sessions) transactional analysis (TA) treatment using the quantitative CORE-OM (Evans, Mellor-Clark, Margison, Barkham, McGrath, Connell & Audin, 2000), PHQ-9 (Kroenke, Spitzer & Williams, 2001) and GAD-7 (Spitzer, Kroenke, Williams & Löwe, 2006) questionnaires and the qualitative Change Interview (Elliott, Slatick, & Urman, 2001, as cited in Frommer & Rennie, 2001). Quantitative findings show that positive Reliable Change on global distress, depression and anxiety has taken place within both the short-term and long-term treatment groups with some clients achieving Clinically Significant Change on these measures. Qualitative findings arising from thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006) indicate that a broad spectrum of therapist factors and psychotherapy process factors within the TA therapy delivered were beneficial for this particular client group. The negative influence of a number of psychosocial factors on the veterans’ well-being is also discussed based on numerical data and interview responses. Overall, these results suggest that TA psychotherapy can be effective in the treatment of PTSD among combat veterans.
Transactional Analysis Psychotherapy for a Case of Mixed Anxiety & Depression: A Pragmatic Adjudicated Case Study – ‘Alastair’
© 2014 Mark Widdowson
Using an original method of case evaluation which involved an analysis panel of over 80 Italian psychologists and included a lay case evaluation, the author has investigated the effectiveness of transactional analysis psychotherapy for a case of mixed anxiety and depression with a 39 year old white British male who attended 14 weekly sessions. CORE-OM (Evans, Mellor-Clark , Margison, Barkham, Audin, Connell and McGrath, 2000), PHQ-9 (Kroenke, Spitzer & Williams, 2001), GAD-7) Spitzer, Kroenke, Williams & Löwe, 2006, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Hamilton, 1980) were used for screening and also for outcome measurement, along with Session Rating Scale (SRS v.3.0) (Duncan, Miller, Sparks, Claud, Reynolds, Brown and Johnson, 2003) and Comparative Psychotherapy Process Scale (CPPS) (Hilsenroth, Blagys, Ackerman, Bonge and Blais, 2005), within an overall adjudicational case study method. The conclusion of the analysis panel and the lay judge was unanimously that this was a good outcome case and that the client’s changes had been as a direct result of therapy. Previous case study research has demonstrated that TA is effective for depression, and this present case provides foundation evidence for the effectiveness of TA for depression with comorbid anxiety.
IJTAR Volume 5 Issue 1
A Thematic Analysis of Preferences of Young People using Online Support to Discuss Suicide Ideation – UK
© 2014 Sally Evans
Young people (mainly 15-17 years) using an online counselling, support and advice website were asked about their preferences for online versus face-to-face discussion of suicidal feelings. Thematic analysis of results (n = 24) yielded a main theme of ‘anonymity’ with sub-themes of ‘safety and freedom’, ‘confidentiality’ and ‘control’. Issues of safeguarding distressed young people who have chosen to remain anonymous are raised.
An Analysis of Working Styles in Different Professions in Russia
© 2014 Dmitry Kasyanov
A convenience sample of 861 people (451 female, 410 male) working in a range of organisations and professions in Russia completed a translation into Russian of the Working Styles Questionnaire (Hay 1992). Statistical analysis indicated adequate discrimination between styles and it was possible to create norm tables based on the full sample. Average patterns are presented for each of 15 occupations including engineers, information technology, public relations, secretarial, sales, accounting, economists and HR roles. It can be seen that Be Perfect style predominates in every occupational pattern, with Please People a close second in most and Hurry Up least evident in most.
IJTAR Volume 5 Issue 1
Application of Redecision Therapy in Executive Coaching Workshops: Part 1 – the Workshop
© 2014 Mil Rosseau, Rik Rosseau & Mark Widdowson
First in a series of three, this paper describes how the redecision approach (Goulding & Goulding 1979) has been applied over many years within executive coaching workshops internationally. The potential controversy about using a therapeutic approach in a business context is addressed, participant profiles and leadership characteristics are described, the impact of the group environment is considered, and the links between working on ‘problems’ and Berne’s (1961) stages of cure are explained. The stages of working are related to those described by Goulding & Goulding (1979) and supplemented with material from McNeel (1999-2000) and Allen & Allen (2002). This paper describes the interventions that are evaluated qualitatively by Widdowson & Rosseau (2014) and that will be further evaluated quantitatively in the future.
Application of Redecision Therapy in Executive Coaching Workshops: Part 2 – A Qualitative Exploration of Participants’ Changes
© 2014 Mark Widdowson & Mil Rosseau
This is the second paper of three and describes an investigation into the way that executive coaching as a growing field of organisational development can be based on transactional analysis theory and methods. Twelve participants who had attended a coaching workshop based on Goulding & Goulding’s (1979) redecision therapy approach completed a follow-up Change Questionnaire adapted by the first author from material by Elliott et al (2001) and responses were analysed using thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke 2006). Participants reported experiencing a wide range of personal growth experiences, positive interpersonal change and growth in their business, managerial and leadership skills as a result of participating in the work-shops. Limitations are described including the possible impact of the transferential artefact of wanting to please the workshop facilitator. The thematic analysis findings suggest that such an approach can provide an effective framework for executive coaching workshops.
IJTAR Volume 4 Issue 2
TA Treatment of Depression – A Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design Study – ‘Linda’ – a mixed outcome case
© 2013 Mark Widdowson
Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design (HSCED) is a systematic case study research method involving the cross-examination of mixed method data to generate both plausible arguments that the client changed due to therapy and alternative explanations. The present study is the fourth article of a case series which has investigated the process and outcome of transactional analysis psychotherapy using Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design (Elliott 2002). The client, Linda, was a 45 year old white British woman with mild depression who attended nine sessions of therapy. The conclusion of the judges was that this was a mixed-outcome case: whilst the client improved over the course of therapy and was positive about her experience of therapy, her changes did not last when she experienced considerable stressful events during follow-up. Linda provided a detailed and idiosyncratic description of the aspects of the therapy which were most helpful for her. A cross-case comparison with other cases in this series suggests several interesting features which are worthy of further investigation. Specifically, the use of a shared theoretical framework and an egalitarian therapeutic relationship were helpful. As with other cases in this series, the client experienced positive changes in her interpersonal relationships suggesting that this outcome of TA therapy warrants further investigation
TA Treatment of Emetophobia – A Systematic Case Study – ‘Peter’
© 2013 Colin Kerr
This study reports on the application of elements of Hermeneutic Single Case Efficacy Design (HSCED) (Elliott 2002) to a 39 session TA-based psychotherapy intervention with a 19 year old white male student in the UK who was suffering from emetophobia. The author, who was also the researcher, provides literature reviews on emetophobia clinical characteristics, contrasts it with other phobias, and reviews prior research including TA-based approaches to phobias generally. HSCED Methodology is briefly described; quantitative outcome measures are obtained and analysed using GAD-7 (Spritzer et al 2006) and SPQ (Elliott et al 1999), and qualitative measures via a rich case record, session recordings/transcripts, and a 4-month follow-up interview. Bohart at al’s (2011) 56 criteria for evidence adjudication were used alongside HSCED criteria. There was strong evidence of significant client changes, and that these changes were the result of the therapy.
Preliminary Evaluation of Outcomes of Transactional Analysis Psychotherapy for Armed Forces Veterans presenting with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
© 2013 David Harford
This brief outline presents some initial findings from a pilot project conducted within a charity setting in the UK, examining clinical outcomes for a cohort of armed forces veterans presenting with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Outcomes were measured using CORE-OM (Evans et al 2000), PHQ-9 (Kroenke et al 2001) and GAD-7 (Spitzer et al 2006). Preliminary findings show that positive Reliable Change on global distress and anxiety had taken place within 16 sessions. These results suggest that transactional analysis psychotherapy has promise for treatment of PTSD with this client group and that further research is warranted.
An Analysis of Dominant Working Styles in Different Professions in Macedonia
© 2013 Marina Pavlovska
A convenience sample of 90 employees working as Economists, Legal Advisors or IT Experts within three companies in Skopje, Macedonia completed the Working Styles Questionnaire (Hay 1992) and it was found that there were statistically significant differences in working style preferences between the professions. These differences are discussed in relationship to the National Nomenclature of Professions of Macedonia (State Statistical Office 2011) and implications for human resources management are briefly reviewed. Limitations are identified relating to the size and specific location of the subjects. It is concluded that the hypothesis that there will be differences between dominant working styles of the professions is accepted. An explanation is included which clarifies the distinction between drivers (Kahler & Capers 1974, Kahler 1975, 2008) and working styles (Hay & Williams 1989, Hay 1993, 2009).
IJTAR Volume 4 Issue 1
This issue contained the papers from the EATA TA Research Conference.
IJTAR Volume 3 Issue 2
TA Treatment of Depression – A Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design Study – ‘Denise’
© 2012 Mark Widdowson
Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design (HSCED) is a systematic case study research method involving the cross-examination of mixed method data to generate both plausible arguments that the client changed due to therapy and alternative explanations. The present study uses HSCED to investigate the outcome of short-term TA psychotherapy with a woman with severe depression. The objective of the research was to investigate the effectiveness of short-term TA therapy for the treatment of depression and to explore and identify key aspects of the TA therapy process and associated factors promoting change amongst effective cases. To enhance rigour and to address potential for researcher allegiance, independent psychotherapy researchers have adjudicated the case and offer a verdict on outcome. The conclusion of the adjudicators is that the client changed substantially, and that these changes were substantially due to the effects of therapy.
Additional rigour was introduced into the HSCED approach for this 2nd case through the use of a more stringent classification of change, an increased reliable change index score, a higher standard of proof, the use of two teams to develop the affirmative and sceptic cases, and the addition of a third judge.
TA Treatment of Depression – A Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design Study – ‘Tom’
©2012 Mark Widdowson
Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design (HSCED) is a systematic case study research method involving the cross-examination of mixed method data to generate both plausible arguments that the client changed due to therapy and alternative explanations. The present study uses HSCED to investigate the outcome of short-term TA psychotherapy with a man with moderate depression and comorbid social anxiety The objective of the research was to investigate the effectiveness of short-term TA therapy for the treatment of depression and to explore and identify key aspects of the TA therapy process and associated factors promoting change amongst effective cases. To enhance rigour and address potential for researcher allegiance, indep-endent psychotherapy researchers have adjudicated the case and offer a verdict on outcome. The majority verdict of two judges in this case was that this was a positive outcome case and that the client had changed substantially and that these changes were substantially due to the effects of therapy. The third judge’s conclusion was that this was a mixed outcome case, and that the client had changed considerably and that this had been considerably due to therapy.
This is the 3rd case reported on and additional rigour was introduced into the HSCED approach in the same way as reported in the accompanying paper about the 2nd case. (IJTAR 3:2, 3-14)
The presence of injunctions in clinical and non-clinical populations
© 2012 Danijela Budiša, Vesna Gavrilov-Jerković, Aleksandra Dickov, Nikola Vučković, Sladjana Martinovic Mitrovic
Various authors within the transactional analysis community have postulated that a person’s life script is formed on the basis of received injunctions, that people with mental disorders have more destructive and numerous injunctions and that people with depressive and paranoid pathology have different sets of injunctions, with Don’t belong being more common in paranoid disorders and Don’t be important in depressive disorders. This research was conducted to check such assertions, and used Script Injunctions Scale (Gavrilov-Jerković et al., 2010) applied to a convenience sample of 100 adult subjects identified as non-clinical via interviews and 100 adult subjects, equally divided between paranoid and depressive, identified by psychiatrist classification based on ICD-10 criteria. The results provide partially expected validation, with statistically significant difference between the non-clinical and clinical part of the sample. The clinical group had statistically significantly higher scores on the 12 injunctions studied. Subjects with depressive characteristics had seven Injunctions which were more pronounced Don’t feel, Don’t exist, Don’t be well, Don’t be a child, Don’t, Don’t think, and Don’t be close Injunctions.
IJTAR Volume 3 Issue 1
TA Treatment of Depression – A Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design Study – ‘Peter’
© 2012 Mark Widdowson
Hermeneutic Single-Case Efficacy Design (HSCED) is a systematic case study research method involving the cross-examination of mixed method data to generate both plausible arguments that the client changed due to therapy and alternative explanations. The present study uses HSCED to investigate the outcome of short-term TA psychotherapy with a young man with severe depression. The objective of the research was to investigate the effectiveness of short-term TA therapy for the treatment of depression and to explore and identify key aspects of the TA therapy process and associated factors promoting change amongst effective cases. To enhance rigour and to address potential for researcher allegiance, independent psychotherapy researchers have adjudicated the case and offer a verdict on outcome. The conclusion of the adjudicators is that the client changed considerably-substantially, and that these changes were substantially due to the effect of therapy.
The author provides detailed appendices to encourage others to replicate the research and add to the body of knowledge based on the HSCED process.
Volume 2 Issue 2 July 2011
The Impact on Self Perception of Ego States of a Transactional Analysis Introductory Training Course (TA 101)
© 2011 Traian Bossenmayer
The research examines the effects of transactional analysis (TA) 101 training upon self perceptions of ego-state dynamics, using the model of ego states incorporated into the Adjective Check List (Gough & Heilbrun, 1980). Subjects completed the question-naires at the beginning and end of the training and one month later. The only statistically significant change was that Critical Parent decreased after the training and was still lowered one month later, although not as much. It was also found that gender was significant, but age was not.
Transactional Analysis as Psychotherapy Method – A Discourse Analytic Study
© 2011 Roland Johnsson
Operational definitions of categorisations by McNeel (1975) were developed and applied by the author and an independent assessor to complete discourse analysis of 72 hours of transactional analysis group therapy in the style of Goulding & Goulding (1976, 1979) conducted during 1984/85. Results showed that the therapist used an average of 42% of the discourse space and that the therapy did indeed contain TA components, with the two main categories being ‘Feeling Contact’ and ‘Contracts’, and with particular use of TA techniques of ‘talking to Parent projections’, ‘make feeling statement’, ‘mutual negotiation’ and ‘specificity/clarity’. Inter-rater reliability was 46.2% (Araujo & Born 1985), Cohen’s (1960) kappa coefficient shows a spread from slight to moderate agreement, and the Odds Ratio (Viera, 2008) is above 1.0 for most categories.
Client Assessment in Transactional Analysis – A Study of the Reliability and Validity of the Ohlsson, Björk and Johnsson Script Questionnaire
© 2011 Roland Johnsson
A script questionnaire and associated checklist developed by Ohlsson, Johnsson & Björk (1992) was used by the author and two professional colleagues to independently assess ten clients of a year-long transactional analysis therapy group conducted by the author. Ratings based on written responses at start of therapy were compared to ratings based on videotape interviews conducted by the author six years after termination of therapy. Moderately high inter-assessor reliability was found but intra-assessor reliability was low for the independent assessors; agreement increased for script components ‘primary injunction from father,’ ‘racket feeling’, ‘escape hatch’, ‘driver from father’ and ‘driver from mother’.
Evaluating the Outcomes of Transactional Analysis and Integrative Counselling Psychology within UK Primary Care Settings
© 2011 Biljana van Rijn, Ciara Wild, Patricia Moran
The paper reports on a naturalistic study that replicated the evaluative design associated with the UK National Health Service initiative IAPT − Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (CSIP 2008, NHS 2011), as previously used to assess Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT), with the aim of evaluating 12-session treatments for anxiety and depression, applying Transactional Analysis and Integrative Counselling Psychology approaches within real clinical settings in primary care. Standard outcome measures were used in line with the IAPT model (CORE 10 and 34, GAD-7, PHQ-9), supplemented with measurement of the working alliance (WAI Horvath 1986) and an additional depression inventory BDI-II (Beck, 1996), and adherence to the therapeutic model using newly designed questionnaires. Results indicated that severity of problems was reduced using either approach, comparative to Cognitive Behavioural Therapy; that initial severity was predictive of outcome; and that working alliance increased as therapy progressed but was not directly related to outcomes. Adherence was high for both approaches. Several areas for enhancements to future research are suggested.
Volume 2 Issue 1 January 2011
Studying Acculturation using Transactional Analysis Theory: the Interplay between Existential Positions and Acculturation Styles
© 2011 Lena Kornyeyeva
This article is a partial report about quantitative research on the role of the Negative Existential Position in Authoritarian Personality formation (reported on elsewhere) and acculturation features among immigrants with authoritarian backgrounds in a democratic milieu (Germany). Data were collected among respondents of different backgrounds: immigrants in Germany from Turkey, the former Soviet Union and Western countries, and native Germans as a quasi-control group (N=1318), with each subsample encompassing at least 200 respondents. Various statistical analyses were performed in order to validate the empirical outcomes (from correlation analysis to structural equation modelling). The hypothesis that a Negative Existential Position is more articulated among individuals who were exposed to an authoritarian socialization was confirmed. The hypothesis that a Negative Existential Position serves as a predictor for the so called Acculturation Dysfunction was confirmed as well. The conceptual analogy between Existential Positions and Styles of Acculturation was examined and the hypothesis that four possible styles of acculturation (Berry et al., 1987, Berry & Kim, 1988; Berry et al., 1989) are correlated with correspondent Existential Position found support.
Impact of Transactional Analysis Psychotherapy Training on Self Awareness and Ability for Contact
© 2011 Biljana van Rijn, Ciara Wild, Heather Fowlie, Charlotte Sills, Servaas van Beekum https://doi.org/10.29044/V2I1P16
This research was a small scale quantitative study involving students undergoing Relational Transactional Analysis psychotherapy training at Metanoia Institute in London in the UK between September 2007 and July 2008. The researchers aimed to evaluate the impact of the training on students’ psychological health, using the ‘Autonomy Questionnaire’ (Beekum & Krijgsman, 2000). This allowed measurement of developments in students’ self awareness and ability for contact with others during their second year of training (first year of clinical practice) compared to students in their 4th and final year. The scope of the study and the findings are exploratory. The research raises questions for further research in the areas of psychotherapy training and supervision.
Case Study Research Methodology
© 2011 Mark Widdowson
Commenting on the lack of case studies published in modern psychotherapy publications, the author reviews the strengths of case study methodology and responds to common criticisms, before providing a summary of types of case studies including clinical, experimental and naturalistic. Suggestions are included for developing systematic case studies and brief descriptions are given of a range of research resources relating to outcome and process measures. Examples of a pragmatic case study design and a hermeneutic single-case efficacy design are given and the paper concludes with some ethical considerations and an exhortation to the TA community to engage more widely in case study research.
Volume 1 Issue 1 July 2010
Mathematical Calculation Procedures and Drivers in Action in the Learning Environment
© 2010 Cesare Fregola
The paper reports on the qualitative results of the experimental phase of a study to examine the links between children’s learning experiences associated with two digit division and the transactional analysis concept of drivers. The author presents results obtained from a process that used a questionnaire developed during a prior heuristic phase of research, combined with undergraduate student observations of the children, drawings produced by the children, and teacher observations on permission transactions used. Examples are provided for each of the five drivers.
The affective dimension of alliance in transactional analysis psychotherapy
© 2010 Roland Johnsson and Gunvor Stenlund
The study describes an investigation of the significance of the affective dimension of the therapeutic alliance (Bordin 1979), in a psychodynamic form of transactional analysis therapy after the style of “Redecision therapy” (Goulding & Goulding, 1979). We explored the client’s pattern of affective relationships by use of CCRT (the Core Conflictual Relationship method, Luborsky & Crits-Christoph, 1990, 1998) and examined how the therapist responds to the client’s affective messages (“tests”) by use of the Plan Diagnosis method (Weiss & Sampson, 1986). We found that “emotional” aspects play a more decisive role than has been envisioned in the TA redecision method and similar approaches of TA psychotherapy that emphasise contracts, tasks of therapy and a rational approach.
Scientific evidence base for transactional analysis in the year 2010
© 2010 Thomas Ohlsson
The International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research, IJTAR, has been created to stimulate research and support the continued effort to build a scientific evidence base for transactional analysis (TA). This article is an attempt to locate the starting point for the journal, to identify, evaluate and draw conclusions from what has already been done, and to articulate the existing scientific evidence base for TA in the year 2010.
The Empirical Basis of Medicine in search of Humanity and Naturalistic Psychotherapy in search of its Hermeneutic Roots
© 2010 (English) Pio Scilligo
No abstract appeared. This article was originally published in Italian as ‘La base empirica della medicina alla ricerca di umanità e una psicoterapia naturalistica alla ricerca delle sue radici ermeneutiche’ in: “Psicologia Psicoterapia e Salute” 2006, Vol.12, No. 1, 1 – 30. The IFREP-93′ review. This translation appears with the kind permission of IFREP-93.
The Relationship between Teaching Transactional Analysis Theory and College Students’ Locus of Control: an Empirical Research
© 2010 Yang Mei
An investigation, through empirical research, of the relationship between education in Transactional Analysis theory and the Locus of Control of college students. Two questionnaire surveys were conducted before and after the Transactional Analysis classes, and personal narrative reports by the students were collected. It was found that psychology education in Transactional Analysis correlated with a reduction in scores for the External Control proclivity of the 81 students, and their assignments displayed similar proclivity. Transactional Analysis knowledge was shown to help students discover and explore their own potentials and liberate their creativity. It is proposed that an increase of transactional analysis theory in the education of college students should be considered.